In the new era of ECA’s and alternative fuels, vessel owners/operators are faced with important decisions with significant cost and financial risks. The days of just using HFO without exhaust cleaning are over in the ECA’s and worldwide after 2020. HEC has analyzed several alternative solutions for meeting the new regulations for a variety of ship types and sizes operating in a selection of trades to determine their relative merits and costs. No single solution stands out as the “best” solution for all ships in all services. It is hoped, however, that the analyses presented in this report will demonstrate how owners can evaluate their service requirements as well as the costs and benefits of the various options in order to determine the best fuel alternative for their vessels. Click here to download related pdf.