Representative Regulatory Projects


SOLAS Dry cargo ship damage stability – This is based on staff research in the ‘70’s and PhD work at the University of Strathclyde including work on the EU funded project HARDER. Prepared damage stability calculations for USCG, and produced related papers, submissions to IMO, and leading working groups to draft the early versions of the probabilistic rules that have now been harmonized into SOLAS 2009. 

Intact Stability Code – participation in working groups at SLF for IS Code development.

Offshore Support Vessels Reviewed and recommended stability regulations for new Class rules.


Ballast Water – from early days with basic education on ballast practices, through rules for exchange and local/national/IMO rule development for treatment.  Provided research and publications for USCG and ABS and participated extensively in working groups at IMO with the US Delegation. Also prepared a study and regulatory analysis of the economic impacts of proposed ballast water standards for USCG.

Tanker double hull and probabilistic outflow regulations in MARPOL – Research papers, submissions and working group participation at IMO.  This included work on hydrostatic balanced loading for tankers as an intermediate alternative to double hulling.  HEC later wrote the INTERTANKO guide on HBL. 

Bunker tank outflow regulations – Research papers, submissions and working group lead at IMO, including a bunker oil outflow study for the USCG.  Note, the work was to show that a risk based approach could provide environmental protection while allowing flexibility of ship design – rather than a strict double hull requirement. The work resulted in the probabilistic protective location of bunker tanks, as an alternative to double skin fuel tanks.

Pollution Prevention and Control – EU research project on the risks of pollution from Aframax tankers and development of pollution prevention approaches. Developed integrated methodology for calibrating historical data in order to predict the risk of accidental oil outflow. Project summary and documents can be found here.

EEDI – evaluation of baselines for tankers, container ships and LNG carriers, influence of design parameters on EEDI and whether the rule formulation would distort ship design in ways that might improve the EEDI but actually result in lower overall shipping efficiency.  Several papers published with ABS and SNAME and submitted as INF docs via IMarEst.  These led to early recalibration of some of the baselines and pointed out the difficulty some ship types/sizes would have meeting the EEDI.  From this work one could infer how speed/power reductions would have to be used to meet EEDI.  HEC also assisted INTERFERRY with the revision of the RoRo and Ropax EEDI requirements presented at MEPC 69, 70 and 71, providing technical analysis and member engagement for data collection.

Environmental Impact – Studied LNG carrier intake and discharge at a proposed terminal in order to determine the environmental impact on the local river ecosystem.

Emissions – Organised industry forum on marine vessel emission regulations and their potential impact on owners/operators.


Ship Casualty – Performed peer review of State of Alaska Aleutian Island Study of the risk of ship casualty. Other risk work maybe found here.


IMO Goal Based Standards for ship structures and Class Societies – Work with INTERTANKO and BIMCO as their representative on the External Advisory group for evaluation of IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) harmonization process.


Open Top Containership rules – Work with various technical Sub-committees on the development of the open-top containership rules (loadline exemptions, stability, bilge dewatering requirements, damage stability, fire detection, fire protection and hazardous cargo stowage).

Container securing – Developed Container Securing Guide for Class use.

Advisories – Prepared Ballast water treatment and Fuel Switching advisories for class society ABS.